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Don’t run C* on a SAN. Cassandra was designed for commodity hardware, so it didn’t really plan for SAN/high performance hardware. It’s not only unnecessary, it actually performs worse on SANs than it does on commodity hardware. C* uses (un)coordinated IO, so each node assumes it has local disk and attempts to maximize the bandwidth it uses. If you try to use a SAN, you wind up hammering your SAN.
Cassandra uses a commit log used for recovery; putting it on the same volume as the data directory causes problems because they have conflicting IO patterns. Commit logs are 100% sequential appends, but the data directory is usually random reads. The commit log is very sensitive to other processes moving the disk head. This problem only shows up under load, so it’s sometimes difficult to find when testing.
Oversize JVM heaps are an issue – 4-8G is good, 10-12 is fine (“correct” or “not bad”), 16GB is the max. Greater than 16GB is a problem, as is setting the JVM heap to the same size as the RAM on the box. This is due to increasing “GC suckage”.
Scheduled repairs should be run with “-pr”. This prevents it from communicating work to other nodes, therefore reducing the work load from duplicated work.
C* requires a lot of file handles, so the common default of 1024 is absolutely not sufficient. This does not show up in testing, even when testing with large datasets. It shows up with load spikes, and fails in unpredictable ways. 32K-128K is common.
Putting a load balancer in front of C* is completely unnecessary and only adds another point of failure. The clients will usually balance between the available nodes on their own without this.
Sometimes people try to restrict clients to a single node. This actually takes work, and causes problems. Don’t do it.
Having an unbalanced ring used to be the number one problem encountered. An unbalanced ring leads to hotspots on the node with a larger range. OPSC automates the resolution of this with two clicks, even across multiple data centers. Related to this, always specify your initial_token instead of letting C* pick for you. The initial token specifies where in the range of 0 to 2^127 the node sits.
The Row Cache is a Row Cache, not a Query Cache, Slice Cache, or any kind of Cache. Asking for less than the entire row requires deserialization of the cached row to pick out the pieces you want, working against the Row Cache. If you ask for the entire Row, it will use the cached version that’s stored outside the JVM (which means you need to take it into account when sizing memory for the machine). If you turn on the Row Cache, ask for the entire row. Related, large (2GB) rows are still a problem for the cache.
If you think you need the Byte Ordering Partitioner (formerly Order Preserving Partitioner), you probably don’t. [He didn’t say why, just that it’s a big problem.]
Batches are set in a single message and must fit in memory on both the client and server. This makes unbounded batches a real problem. The best batch size is an empirical exercise based on your specific load, hardware, data, etc.
Rotational disks require seek time – and Cassandra was designed for them. 5ms is a fast seek time, but remember that that’s hard overhead for your queries. SSDs solve this, but remember that this is overhead on top of the software when you use rotational disks. Note that you can totally run C* on consumer SSDs, doesn’t need “Enterprise” SSD.
C* usually deals with Big Data, so a 32 bit JVM usually doesn’t work.
If you’re running C* on AWS, EBS Volumes are problematic. They have nice features, but they’re unpredictable. A better approach is striping ephemeral drives and spinning up new nodes when one fails. It’s not clear whether provisioned IOPS EBS are a good fit.
At this point your should be running a Sun^WOracle JVM – r22 or later. Some people are successfully using OpenJDK, but it hasn’t been well tested.
Super Columns have 10-15% overhead for both reads and writes: the entire super column needs to be held in memory. Most C* devs dislike them.
DataStax offers a free version of their Ops Center – no excuse not to use it.