Elm: Making the Web FunctionalΒΆ

Authors:Evan Czaplicki
Time:10:30 am - 11:00 am

The focus is making the web functional, but the real question is “why elm?”. It’s inspired by the Kubler-Ross model: Acceptance, Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression.

Wants to:

  • make GUI programming more

pleasant: reduce the time/headache from idea to reality, make people ask “How was it not this way before?”

  • Also wants to make programming

more accessible: no installation required, interactive compiler online. Quick visual feedback. Examples! Easy path from novice to Expert.

These goals are accomplished through:

  • functional GUIs: enforces safe

programming practice, plays nice with concurrency, beauty/elegance.

  • Accessibility: target the web, be open source, great resources/examples

“But aren’t GUIs imperative?” is the objection. Perhaps, but there’s a lot to learn from functional programming, and the fact that GUIs have been imperative is an artifact of poor tools. Elms is an effort to get the tools there.

A GUI is made up of computations, graphics, and reactions. The question is how to do each of these in a functional way. We know how functional computation works: it’s pretty well understood. Graphics have historically been very imperative, but we’ve been moving to higher level abstractions, from pixels in a matrix to triangles, to OpenGL, etc. The idea of more abstraction is to reduce the number of steps between “I want a pentagon” and “I have a pentagon”.

Elm works with Elements: rectangular “things” we put on the screen. Some basic functions that return Elements include plainText, Image, fittedImage. Elm also supports Markdown for text formatting.

Elm attempts to make things that are conceptually simple simple to program. So things like alignment (“put this in the middle”) or flow (“put these one after another”) are simple to express (unlike, say, HTML).

[shows demonstrations, including Collage, which lets you composite things easily.]

So graphics can be done in a high-level, compositional, functional manner. But how do you handle reactions? If a value is immutable (in a functional language), how do you deal with user input? Elm introduces the idea of time-varying values: a stream of input like the mouse position. By introducing this idea, you also get some signaling/auto-update: things that depend on the mouse position will automatically update when it does. Elm is functional, so you can change the way things react/interact without changing the way the graphics are drawn.

Elm can be used for writing games: imperative game programming is pretty flexible (pixel flipping, etc) – too flexible in the opinion of the author. Elm requires you to use good structure. [Demonstrates Pong using Elm] Every Elm game must have three parts: a model, the state, and the view. You might think of this as the functional equivalent of MVC.

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